There is a lot of talk about “equity” in education today. But what does that mean, and how do we get thereWe often find it helpful to begin to answer those questions by taking a close look at where the inequities lie in our schools. What does the data tell us about what’s happening in schools today and has been happening across systems for decades? 

To help facilitate these conversations, we’ve developed this quiz on the race-based disproportionalities hampering schools and students across the U.S. This is not just about testing your knowledge on educational inequities nationally. It’s a chance to use the data and the in-depth answer key that follows as a jumping off point for reflection and for engaging your colleagues in conversation about how we got here, and what we need to do to dismantle these inequities.

Take 15 minutes to engage with this quiz either on your own, with your team, or both. Then use it as a guide for exploring the state of equity in your own district and/or state. At the end, you will find a detailed answer key to support reflections and discussions. We would love to hear what you learned, what surprised you, how the national data compares or contrasts to what you see in your own schools, and what next steps you and your team are considering taking based on what you learned and discussed. Share your reactions and ideas at blog@nycleadershipacademy.org, or Tweet them to #HowILeadforEquity. 

 

1. Nationally, districts serving large numbers of students of color receive, on average, _____ less per student than largely white districts.

A. $200

B. $2,200

C. $1,100

D. $110

 

2. The share of intensely segregated minority schools (schools that enroll 90-100% non-white students) _________from 1988 to 2016.

A. more than doubled

B. declined by 50%

C. more than tripled

D. declined by 30%

 

3. A study of test scores from all public-school districts (40 million third to eighth grade students during 2009-13) revealed that Black and Hispanic students scored lower on standardized tests than their white classmates. How much lower, on average, did Black students score?

A. A half grade level

B. One grade level

C. Two grade levels

D. Three grade levels

 

4. In 2017, the average reading score on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for white 4th grade students was ___ points higher than Black students.

A. 50 points

B. 15 points

C. 3 points

D. 30 points

 

5. While Black students accounted for nearly 16 percent of all public-school students in the 2013-14 school year, they represented nearly __ percent of students suspended from school.

A. 20 percent

B. 40 percent

C. 60 percent

D. 80 percent

 

6. Black and Hispanic students represent 42% of student enrollment in schools offering gifted and talented education programs, but _____% of the students enrolled in those programs.

A. 28 percent

B. 6 percent

C. 16 percent

D. 38 percent

 

7. High schools with higher enrollments of students of color have ________ access to college and career preparation courses offered (Algebra I, geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry, physics).

A. more

B. less

C. the same

 

8. What percent of public schools in the United States do not have a single teacher of color on staff?

A. 10 percent

B. 20 percent

C. 40 percent

D. 55 percent

 

9. Black and Latinx students are ____ and ____ times respectively more likely than white students to attend schools where less than 80% of teachers meet all state certification and licensure requirements.

A. 2 and 3 times

B. 2 and 4 times

C. 2 and 2 times

D. 4 and 2 times

 

10. While about 49% of the U.S. public school student population are white, ______% of school principals and ____% of superintendents identify as white.

A. 50% of principals and 64% of school superintendents

B. 80% of principals and 94% of school superintendents

C. 70% of principals and 84% of school superintendents

D. 60% of principals and 7% of school superintendents

 

11. Black middle and high school students are ___ to attend a school with more security staff than mental health personnel, compared to their white peers.

A. more than three times more likely

B. more than twice as likely

C. about half as likely

D. just as likely

 

12. Of college aged individuals in 2013, 42 percent of white students were enrolled in college. What percentage of Black and Hispanic students that age were enrolled?

A. 17 percent

B. 34 percent

C. 51 percent

D. 68 percent

 

 

Answer Key: 

School Funding 

1. Nationally, districts serving large numbers of students of color receive, on average, _____ less per student than largely white districts.   

Answer: B. $2,200 

School district budgets are largely tied to local property taxes, meaning wealthier districts with higher property values bring in more property tax revenues and likewise provide higher funding for schools than poorer districts do. States typically offset these disparities to some extent, but rarely provide an equitable system that can respond to student needs. While states today are working to redistribute money to make up for this fact, funding disparities still exist when examining the racial makeup of these districts. In 2015-16, predominantly nonwhite districts (more than 75% nonwhite students) received, on average, 16%, or about $2,200, less per student than largely white (more than 75% white students) districts. This means that regardless of geographic location or wealth, a student living in a primarily white school district benefits from more resources than those enrolled in primarily nonwhite districts.   

These disparities can add up. One large-scale study looking at school finance reforms across the country for 15,000 students over 40 years found that, for low-income students, a 10% increase in per-pupil spending for all 12 years of public school resulted in an increase of 10 percentage points in graduation rates and a reduction of 6 percentage points in adult poverty rates. 

 

Student Demographics 

2. The share of intensely segregated minority schools (schools that enroll 90-100% non-white students)  _________from 1988 to 2016. 

Answer: C. more than tripled  

In 1960, over 85% of public-school students were white and 15% were students of color. Today, students of color up over 50% of the students enrolled. While the demographics have shifted, segregation in schools has deepened. In fact, the typical student of color attends a school with fewer white students than their counterparts would have in 1970. 

Racially diverse learning environments have numerous benefits for all students, including improved academic achievement (Ayscue, Frankenberg, & Siegel-Hawley, 2017). Students in integrated schools have higher average test scores, are more likely to enroll in college, and are less likely to drop out of school (The Century Foundation, 2019). Racially diverse schools are also beneficial for intergroup relations. Attending racially diverse schools contributes to greater comfort with peers of diverse backgrounds, which reduces prejudicebiases, and stereotypes and promotes cross-cultural understanding and perspective-taking (Garda, 2011; Siegel-Hawley, 2012).  

Racially diverse schools are also beneficial the economic and society (Ayscue, Frankenberg, & Siegel-Hawley, 2017). Diverse learning environments prepare students for life and leadership in a more global economy by developing leaders who are creative, civic-oriented, collaborative, and able to navigate an increasingly diverse and multiracial society (The Century Foundation, 2019). 

 

Standardized Test Performance 

3. A study of test scores from all publicschool districts (40 million 3rd to 8th grade students during 2009-13) revealed that Black and Hispanic students scored lower on standardized tests than their white classmates. How much lower, on average, did Black students score?  

Answer: C. Two grade levels 

Students from low-income and minority-group backgrounds, English language learners, and students with disabilities typically have lower performance ratings on standardized tests. While standardized tests are intended to be an impartial measure of students’ ability and general knowledge, these performance gaps point to potential cultural bias in these exams. In general, most standardized tests are normed using the scores of majority group populations. If the cultural or linguistic backgrounds of the individuals being tested are not adequately represented in the norming group, the validity and reliability of the test are questionable when used with such individuals. Language and culture also affect how test-takers understand and interpret test questions. In addition to native language or English language proficiency, cultural background, experiences, and learning style can influence how students make sense of test items. And in some cases, these tests are high stakes: Some districts use them to determine whether students pass to the next grade level, are eligible for special programs, and graduate on timeIn many districts, standardized exam results have become the single most important indicator of school performance. As a result, schools may narrow the curriculum to match the test. Research has consistently found districts with large populations of non-white students tend to narrow the curriculum to align with the tests, leading to more rote memorization and teacher-centered instruction. 

 

Reading Proficiency 

4. In 2017, the average reading score on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for white 4th grade students was ___ points higher than Black students. 

Answer: D. 30 points 

Among fourth graders in 2017, Asian/Pacific Islander students had the highest scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), at 239, followed by white (232) and Hispanic students (209). Black and American Indian fourth graders had the lowest scores, at 206 and 202 respectively. Similar patterns emerged among eighth and twelfth grade test takers. This is not surprising, as researchers have found that 75% of students identified with reading problems in the third grade still struggle with reading in the ninth grade. 

Reading proficiently by the end of third grade is a crucial marker in a child’s educational development. By third grade, students are not being taught how to read as they are now expected to know the fundamentals of reading and be able to apply their reading skills across the curriculum. This shift is extremely difficult for children who have not mastered basic reading skills. Students are more than four times more likely to drop out of school if they are unable to read proficiently by the third grade. 

Falling behind in school has serious consequences – adults with lower levels of literacy and education are more likely than adults with higher levels of literacy and education to be unemployed or to earn an income that falls below the poverty level. Furthermore, adults without a high school diploma or postsecondary education are more likely to be incarcerated than adults with higher levels of education. 

 

Discipline Referrals 

5. While Black students accounted for nearly 16 percent of all public school students in the 2013-14 school year, they represented about nearly __ percent of students suspended from school.   

Answer: B. 40 percent 

Data has consistently shown that schools are more likely to take disciplinary action against Black students than students of other races – schools suspend or expel them three times more frequently than white students. Studies examining the relationship between race and suspension found that white students were more likely to be disciplined for provable, documentable offenses while Black students were more likely to be disciplined for more subjective reasons.  

Discipline sanctions resulting in exclusion from school results in missed instructional time and for some, can lead to disengagement. Research consistently finds a strong positive relationship between time engaged in academic learning and student achievement, meaning these disciplinary practices may contribute to lowered academic performance. These disciplinary actions also put students at higher risk for negative life outcomes, including involvement in the criminal justice system. Recent literature suggests that the disproportionately negative outcomes of school policies for students of color directly contributes to their overrepresentation in the justice system – youth of color make up over 60% of children detained by juvenile justice systems. 

 

 

Gifted and Talented Enrollment 

6. Black and Hispanic students represent 42% of student enrollment in schools offering gifted and talented education programs, but _____% of the students enrolled in those programs.  

Answer: A. 28 percent  

Nationwide, students of color have less access to accelerated courses or programs. While Black and Latinx students are underrepresented in gifted and talented education programs, White students are overrepresented. White students comprise 49% of all students in schools offering gifted and talented education programs but represent 57% of students enrolled in these programs. These inequities in access are important because they translate into gaps in postsecondary opportunity. Gifted and talented programs have been shown to produce substantial educational benefits including increased academic performance and improvements in such domains as motivation, self-efficacy, and engagement with learning.  

Underlying these disparities could be the role of teacher referrals in the identification process. While this process varies widely across states and districts, many begin with a teacher referral. Research shows that teachers are more likely to recommend Asian and White students than African American and Latinx students. In fact, within schools, students of color generally are less likely than White students to be identified even when they satisfy criteria for gifted services. Personal bias, cultural competence, and personal experiences can impede a teacher’s ability to correctly recognize giftedness in students who demonstrate their abilities in ways that do not conform with their definition of gifted. 

 

Course Access 

7. High schools with higher enrollments of students of color have ________ access to college and career preparation courses offered (Algebra I, geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry, physics). 

Answer: B. less 

Nearly 1.4 million students attend public high schools that do not offer Algebra I or the progression of math courses expected by many colleges and universities for enrollment. Similarly, more than 1.5 million students attend public high schools that do not offer Biology or higher. In fact, not a single state offers Algebra I or Biology in every high school. One quarter of high schools with the highest percentage students of color (in the 80th percentile or higher) do not offer Algebra I or higher, compared to the U.S. average of 20 percent. Twenty-nine percent of schools serving high populations students of color don’t offer Biology or higher, compared to only 14 percent of schools serving a lower percent (20th percentile or lower) of nonwhite students.

This means that millions of these students lack access to critical courses necessary to prepare them for college and career. Research shows that, regardless of the type of institution they attend, Black and Hispanic students are far more likely to be placed in remedial courses during their first year of college than their white peers. In fact, Black students in four-year institutions are more than twice as likely as white students to enroll in remediation. Enrolling in remedial courses, which are generally non-credit-bearing, can make it difficult for students to earn a sufficient number of credits to be on track to graduate in a timely manner relative to the program length. Even more, data suggest that many of the students placed in remediation could have successfully completed college-level coursework if they had started there, and many more could complete if provided with additional supplemental support. 

 

Teacher Representation 

8. What percent of public schools in the United States do not have a single teacher of color on staff?  

Answer: C. 40 percent 

Despite national and state legislative efforts to support school desegregation, segregated communities and schools still exist where teachers are often even more segregated than students. Teachers of color are two to three times more likely to work in public schools serving high-poverty, high-minority, urban communities.  

 According to the U.S. Department of Education, about 51% of the public-school student population is made up of students of color while 82% of public-school teachers identify as white. While more teachers of color are entering the workforce than in years past, they are also leaving at faster rates than their peers. During the 2003-04 school year, for example, about 20 percent more minority teachers left the field than entered. High turnover rates are the result of inadequate preparation, lack of administrative support, and poor teaching conditions. 

Greater diversity in the teacher workforce can have positive impacts on students. Research demonstrates that students’ exposure to people who are different from themselves leads to improved cognitive skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, and perspective-taking. For students of color in particular, when taught by teachers who share a racial background, these students benefit from a culture of higher expectations, fewer discipline referrals, and improved academic outcomes. The presence of teachers of color benefits white students as well. 

 

Teacher Quality and Experience 

9. Black and Latinx students are ____ and ____ times as likely as white students to attend schools were 80% or fewer of the teachers meet all state certification and licensure requirements.  

Answer: D. 4 and 2 times 

Research has shown that low-income students and students of color are more likely than their higher income and white peers to be taught by less qualified teachers. Nearly half a million students nationwide attend schools where 60% or fewer of teachers meet all state certification and licensure requirements. 

Racial disparities are particularly acute in schools where uncertified, unlicensed, and inexperienced teachers are concentrated. Schools serving the highest percentage (top 20%) of Black and Latinx students in their district are more likely to employ teachers who are newest to the profession. These schools reported 6% of their teaching staff as being in their first year of teaching in any school, compared to 4% in schools with the lowest percentage (bottom 20%). 

Research shows teachers with stronger qualifications (content knowledge, preparation before entry, certification in the field taught, experience) produce higher student achievement. When it comes to student performance on reading and math tests for example, a teacher is estimated to have two to three times the impact of any other school factor, including services, facilities, and even leadership. 

 

Leader Representation 

10. While about 49% of the U.S. public school student population are white, ______% of school principals and ____% of superintendents identify as white. 

Answer: B80 percent of principals and 94% of school superintendents 

According to recent data from the U.S. Department of Education, 80% of public-school principals identified as white. These numbers look quite similar on the systems-level, with 94% of school superintendents and 88% of state commissioners identifying as white. This shortage of leaders of color can be linked to several barriers and issues including inequities in testing and admission into teaching education, inadequate leadership preparation, discrimination in employment practices, lack of role models, and a failure of others to recognize their leadership skills. As leaders of color are underrepresented, there is a dearth of research available on their effect on student outcomes. Recent studies have suggested a role-model effect, where students of color see themselves in their principals. Strong role models can significantly influence identity development and future aspirations. Studies also suggest a positive relationship between the presence of leaders of color and specific student outcomes, including lower drop-out rates and special education placements, as well as higher graduation rates and placement in gifted programs for students of color. Leaders of color may indirectly influence students in their policy decisions, namely how they recruit and retain teachers. 

 

Access to Social/Emotional Support 

11. Black middle and high school students are ___ to attend a school with more security staff than mental health personnel, compared to their white peers.  

Answer: A. more than three times more likely 

Schools that employ more school-based mental health providers see improved attendance rates, academic and career preparation, graduation rates, in addition to lower rates of suspension and other disciplinary incidents. Still, schools are more likely to have law enforcement on site than mental health personnel. Nationwide, 14 million students are in schools with police presence, but no counselor, nurse, psychologist, or social worker. Many states report 2-3 times as many police officers in schools than social workers.  

Schools with police reported 3.5 times as many arrests as schools without police. Students with disabilities and students of color are most frequently criminalized. Students with disabilities were arrested at a rate 2.9 times that of students without disabilities. Black students were arrested at a rate 3 times that of white students, Pacific Island/Native Hawaiian and Native American students were arrested at a rate 2 times that of white students, and Latinx students were arrested at a rate 1.3 times that of white students. Despite the documented harm of school police and lack of evidence that policing measures make schools safer, the use of school police and similar measures has dramatically increased over the past decades. In 1975, only one percent of schools were patrolled by police officers – today it is 48 percent of schools. 

 

College Enrollment 

12. Of college aged individuals in 2013, 42 percent of white students were enrolled in college. What percent of Black and Hispanic students that age were enrolled?  

Answer: B. 34 percent 

African American and Hispanic student access to postsecondary education has increased over recent years. From 1995 to 2013, African American and Hispanic freshman enrollment increased nationwide by 73% and 107%, respectively, compared with a 15% increase in white students. As minority enrollments increase, the dynamics of enrollment have become increasingly polarized. White students are overrepresented in the 468 most selective colleges, while African-American students are overrepresented in two-year and four-year open-access schools.  

A relative lack of K-12 preparation among African American and Hispanic students does not fully explain the growing racial and ethnic stratification in college completion. High-scoring African Americans and Hispanics go to college at the same rates as similarly high-scoring whites but drop out more often and are less likely to graduate with a bachelor’s degree. One explanation of increasing college dropout rates is the polarization of resources in the higher education system. More selective institutions provide considerably more resources per student, leading to higher graduation rates, allowing greater access to advanced degrees, and producing higher lifetime earnings. 

  

Research Sources: 

School Funding 

  • EdBuild. (2019). $23 billion. Jersey City, NJ: Author. 
  • Morgan, I. & Amerikaner, A. (2018). Funding gaps: An analysis of school funding equity across the U.S. and within each state. Washington, D.C.: The Education Trust.  
  • Raikes, J. & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019, February 18). Why our education funding systems are derailing the American dream [Blog post). 

Student Demographics 

  • Ayscue, J. B., Frankenberg, E., & Siegel-Hawley, G. (2017). The complementary benefits of racial and socioeconomic diversity in schools. Washington, DC: The National Coalition on School Diversity.  
  • Bergman, P. (2016). The risks and benefits of school integration for participating students: Evidence from a randomized desegregation program. (Working Paper).  
  • The Century Foundation. (2019). The benefits of socioeconomically and racially integrated schools and classrooms. New York, NY: Author. 
  • Frankenberg, E., Ee, J., Ayscue, J., & Orfield, G. (2019). Harming our common future: America’s segregated schools 65 Years after Brown. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles, Civil Rights Project. 
  • Garda, R. A. (2011). The white interest in school integration, Florida Law Review, 63(3). 
  • Siegel-Hawley, G. (2012). How non-minority students also benefit from racially diverse schools. Washington, DC: The National Coalition on School Diversity. 

Standardized Test Performance 

  • Knoester, M. & Au, W. (2014). Standardized testing and school segregation: like tinder for fire? Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 20(1), 1-14. 
  • Kim, K. H. & Zabelina, D. (2015). Cultural bias in assessment: Can creativity assessment help? International Journal of Critical Pedagogy. 6(2). 
  • Marchant, G. J. (2004). What is at stake with high stakes testing? A discussion of issues and research. The Ohio Journal of Science, 104(2), 2-7. 
  • Phillips, M. (2006). Standardized tests aren’t like T-shirts: One size doesn’t fit all. Multicultural Education, 14(1), 52-55. 
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service. (2016). The State of Racial Diversity in the Educator Workforce 

Reading Proficiency 

  • Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2010). Kids count special report: Early warning! why reading by the end of third grade matters. Baltimore, MD: Annie. E Casey Foundation. 
  • Lesnick, J., George, R., Smithgall, C., & Gwynne J. (2010). (2010). Reading on grade level in third grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment? Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. 
  • Musen, L. (2010). Beyond test scores: Leading indicators for education. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. 
  • National Reading NAEP Average Scale Scores in Grade 4: Selected Years, 1992-2017. 

Discipline Referrals 

  • Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J., & Noguera, P. A. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: two sides of the same coin? Education Researcher, 39(1), 59-68.  
  • Nicholson-Crotty, S., Birchmeier, Z., & Valentine, D. (2009). Exploring the impact of school discipline on racial disproportion in the juvenile justice system. Social Science Quarterly, 90(4), 1003-1018. 
  • U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2018, March). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. (Publication No. GAO-18-258).  

Gifted and Talented Enrollment 

  • Goudelock, J. D. L. (2019). High-ability African American children: Navigating the two-edged sword of giftedness. Parenting for High Potential, 8(2), 2-5,20-22.  
  • Grissom, J. A. & Redding, C. (2016). Discretion and disproportionality: Explaining the underrepresentation of high-achieving students of color in gifted programs. AERA Open, 2(1), 1-25. 
  • Payne, A. (2010). Equitable access for underrepresented students in gifted education. Arlington, VA: The George Washington University Center for Equity and Excellence in Education. 
  • U.S. Department of Education (2016). 2013-14 Civil rights data collection: Key data highlights on equity and opportunity gaps in our nation’s public schools. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection. 

Course Access 

  • Zaback, K., Carlson, A., Laderman, S., & Mann, S. (2016). Serving the equity imperative: Intentional action toward greater student success. Boulder, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers Association; Indianapolis, IN: Complete College America. 

 Teacher Representation 

  • Bireda, S. & Chait, R. (2011). Increasing Teacher Diversity: Strategies to Improve the Teacher Workforce. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. 
  • Carver-Thomas, D. (2018). Diversifying the teaching profession: How to recruit and retain teachers of color. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. 
  • Hansen, M., and Quintero, D. (2018). Teachers in the US Are Even More Segregated than Students. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.  
  • Ingersoll, R. M., Merrill, E., Stuckey, D., & Collins, G. (2018). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force. CPRE Research Reports 
  • Sanchez, J., Thornton, B., & Usinger, J. (2008). Promoting diversity in public education leadership. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 3(3). 
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service. (2016). The State of Racial Diversity in the Educator Workforce. Washington, D.C.: Author. 
  • Wells, A.S., Fox, L. & Cordova-Cobo, D. (2016). How racially diverse schools and classrooms can benefit all students. New York, NY: The Century Foundation. 

Teacher Quality and Experience 

  • Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2011). Speaking of salaries: What it will take to get qualified, effective teachers in all communities. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress. 
  • RAND Corporation. (2012). Teachers matter: Understanding teachers’ impact on student achievement. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 
  • U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Issue Brief No.4. Civil rights data collection: Data snapshot (teacher equity). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. 

Leader Representation 

  • Chiefs for Change (2016). Diversity to the forefront: Why it matters and recommendations for system-level leaders. Washington, D.C.: Author. 
  • Green, M. R. F. (2018). Public school principals of color: An exploration of trends in and predictors of representation, and influence on school-level outcomes. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park). 
  • Harvey, J., & Holland, H. (2011). The school principal as leader: Guiding schools to better teaching and learning. New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation. 
  • Sanchez, J., Thornton, B., & Usinger, J. (2008). Promoting diversity in public education leadership. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 3(3). 
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies 

Access to Social/Emotional Support 

  • Whitaker, A., Torres-Guillen, S., Morton, M., Jordan, H., Coyle, S., Mann, A., & Sun, W. (2019). Cops and no counselors: How the lack of school mental health staff is harming students. New York, NY: American Civil Liberties Union. 

College Enrollment

  • Carnevale, A. P & Strohl, J. (2013). Separate and unequal: How higher education reinforces the intergenerational reproduction of white racial privilege. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.  
  • Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., & Dillow, S.A. (2016). Digest of Education Statistics 2015 (NCES 2016-014). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
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Nikki Nagler

Director, Research, Evaluation & Impact

Nikki Nagler joined the NYC Leadership Academy in 2016 and now serves as Director of Research, Evaluation & Impact. In this role, she works closely with program teams and clients to gather formative data and uses these qualitative and quantitative measures to investigate and communicate the impact of the Leadership Academy’s work. Previously, Nikki worked as the Director of Assessment at CUNY Hunter College, where she collaborated with faculty to design and implement learning outcomes assessment initiatives that promoted continuous improvement and institutional effectiveness. Nikki holds an MA in Mental Health Counseling from CUNY Hunter College and a BS in Political Science from the University of Maryland, College Park. Growing up, she always thought she wasn’t a “numbers person,” until her high school Calculus teacher taught her otherwise – and now she loves spending her days working with data!